Alternatives Assessment Library
This is a listing of publicly available alternatives assessments (AA), AA-related guidance documents (generally organized by date, from most recent to oldest), and other resources that list multiple case studies.
If you are aware of other AAs or resources that you would like to suggest should be included, please contact us.
Report on PFAS in AFFF and compendium of fluorine-free foams, prepared for the IC2 by the New York State Pollution Prevention Institute at the Rochester Institute of Technology:
- Per- and Polyfluorinated Substances in Firefighting Foam, Updated, April 2019
- Compendium of fluorine-free foams as of April 2019 (Excel file)
Available Alternatives Assessments
- Assessment of Safer and Effective Alternatives for Coating Removal Products. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI). 2020.
- Assessment of Alternatives to Cleaners and Sanitizers for the Brewing Industry. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI). 2020.
- Alkylphenol Ethoxylates in Products Lay of the Land Alternatives Assessment. Prepared for Washington State Department of Ecology by SRC, Inc. 2020.
- Waterborne vs. Solventborne Automotive Basecoats: An Alternatives Assessment. Stephen G. Whittaker and Larry Brown. Hazardous Waste Management Program in King County, Washington. 2019.
- Alternatives to Five Phthalates of Concern to Puget Sound. Prepared for Washington State Department of Ecology by Northwest Green Chemistry and TechLaw, Inc. 2018.
- Washington State Antifouling Boat Paint Alternatives Assessment Report. Prepared for the Washington Department of Ecology by Northwest Green Chemistry. 2017.
- TURI Sports Turf Alternatives Assessment. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI). 2016.
- Alternatives to Methylene Chloride in Paint and Varnish Strippers: Availability of Safer Alternatives & Requirements for Meeting Stage 1 of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulations. BizNGO. October 2015.
- Alternatives Assessment for Flame Retardants in Printed Circuit Boards. USEPA. 2015.
- Bisphenol A Alternatives in Thermal Paper. USEPA. 2015.
- Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam. USEPA. 2015.
- An Alternatives Assessment for the Flame Retardant Decabromodiphenyl Ether (DecaBDE). USEPA. 2014.
- An Alternatives Assessment for the Flame Retardant Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). USEPA. 2014.
- Assessment of Alternatives to Perchloroethylene for the Dry Cleaning Industry. TURI. 2012.
- Alternatives Assessment for Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPEs). USEPA. 2012.
- Alternatives to Deca-BDE in Televisions and Computers and Residential Upholstered Furniture, Washington Department of Ecology and Department of Health, December 2008.
- Five Chemicals Alternatives Assessment Study (Lead, Formaldehyde, Perchloroethylene (PCE), Hexavalent chromium, and Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)). TURI. 2006.
- An Overview of Alternatives to Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Gregory Morose. 2006.
- Decabromodiphenylether: An Investigation of Non-Halogen Substitutes in Electronic Enclosure and Textile Applications. Prepared by Pure Strategies for the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production. 2005.
- An Investigation of Alternatives to Miniature Batteries Containing Mercury. Prepared for the Maine Department of Environmental Protection by Catherine Galligan and Gregory Morose. 2004.
- An Investigation of Alternatives to Mercury-Containing Products. Prepared for the Maine Department of Environmental Protection by Catherine Galligan, Greg Morose, and Jim Giordani. 2003.
- The Use of Di-2-Ethylhexyl-Phthalate in PVC Medical Devices: Exposure, Toxicity and Alternatives, Joel Tickner, Lowell Center for Sustainable Production. 1999.
AA-related Guidance Documents
- Advancing Alternatives Assessment for Safer Chemical Substitution: A Research and Practice Agenda. Tickner, J; Jacobs, M; Malloy, T; Buck, T; Stone, A; Blake, A; Edwards, S. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. 2018-08-17.
- California Safer Consumer Products program, Preliminary Alternatives Analysis Report Template, version 1.0, July 2018.
- Selecting Safer Alternatives to Toxic Chemicals and Ensuring the Protection of the Most Vulnerable: A Discussion Draft. National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and Californians for a Healthy and Green Economy (CHANGE). 2017.
- Decision Making in Alternatives Assessment: Case Studies. The New York State Pollution Prevention Institute (NYSP2I). 2016.
- Assessing Alternatives to Copper Antifouling Paint: Piloting the Interstate Chemicals Clearinghouse (IC2) Alternatives Assessment Guide. Prepared for the Washington Department of Ecology by ToxServices LLC, March 2015.
- California Safer Consumer Products (SCP) program, Draft Stage 1 Alternatives Analysis Guide
- Integrating Life Cycle Considerations in Alternatives Assessment Processes Discussion Paper
- Alternative Material Assessment Project Report. The International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI). August 2015.
- A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives. National Research Council. 2014.
- Final Goal and Scope for the Alternatives to Certain Phthalates Partnership. USEPA. 2012. (For more information, see DfE Alternatives to Certain Phthalates Partnership.)
Compilations of AAs
Additional AA resources
- The Association for the Advancement of Alternatives Assessment (A4)
- The Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) has produced several AAs, fact sheets and trainings.
- The EPA’s Design for the Environment (DfE) Alternatives Assessment Program has produced AAs for a number of chemical-functional use combinations (referenced above).
- Preventing Toxic Exposures: Workplace Lessons in Safer Alternatives. Health Research for Action, UC Berkeley School of Public Health. July 2010.
- Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety, Substitution and Alternatives Case Studies, Examples and Tools developed by the Lowell Center for Sustainable Product Chemicals Policy and Science Initiative
- Washington Department of Ecology, Safer alternatives to toxic chemicals